I don't know Gold Seeker. I have no first hand experience but do submit this account for your judgement. The directions say that a one-second burst would shock and disorient your assailant. A two-second burst was supposed to cause muscle spasms and a loss of bodily control. A three-second burst would purportedly make your assailant flop on the ground like a fish out of water. All the while I'm looking at this little device (measuring about 5" long, less than 3/4" in circumference, pretty cute really, and loaded with two itsy, bitsy AAA batteries) thinking to my self, No friggin way! What happened next is almost beyond description, but I'll do my best. I'm setting there alone, the dog looking on with his head cocked to one side as to say, don't do it, reasoning that a one-second burst from such a tiny lil' ole thing couldn't hurt all that bad so I decided to give myself a one-second burst just for the heck of it. I touched the prongs to my naked thigh, pushed the button, and HOLY **************************! DAaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuMN!!! I'm pretty sure that Jessie Ventura ran in through the front door, picked me up out of that recliner, then body slammed me on the carpet over and over again. I vaguely recall waking on my side in the fetal position, nipples on fire, testicles nowhere to be found, soaking wet with my left arm tucked under my body in the oddest position. The dog was standing over me making sounds I have never heard before and licking my face. NOTE: If you ever feel compelled to mug yourself with a Taser, one note of caution, there is no such thing as a one-second burst when you zap yourself. You're not going let go of that thing until it is dislodged from your hand by a violent thrashing about on the floor. SON-OF-A-********* that HURT! A minute or so later I collected my wits, sat up and surveyed the landscape. My glasses were on the TV across the room. How did they get there? My triceps, right thigh and both nipples were still twitching. My face felt like it had been shot up with Novocain, and my bottom lip weighed 88 lbs. give or take an ounce or two and I have a standing reward for my testicles as they are still missing.